Our History

1967 — The Teachers Institute in Liberal Education, an eight-week summer program, was started on the (then three year-old) Santa Fe campus. The only segment offered was Politics & Society, but, instead of the chronological syllabus used today, students began with Freud’s Civilization and Its Discontents, Marx’s Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts, Mill’s On Liberty, and Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals, before returning to the ancients.

1968 — Teachers Institute is renamed the Graduate Institute. Literature & Poetry and Philosophy & Theology segments are offered for the first time.

1969 — Mathematics & Science segment is offered for the first time. (Literature & Poetry is renamed Literature.)

1977 — Graduate Institute begins on the Annapolis campus.

1978 — History segment is offered for the first time (in Annapolis only.)

1982 — Classes are offered year-round for the first time (in Santa Fe only.)

1994 — The Eastern Classics Program is inaugurated on the Santa Fe campus.

In Memoriam: Authors and Their Works That Used to Make the (Reading) List

Politics and Society

  • Rousseau: The Social Contract
  • Shakespeare: Coriolanus
  • The UN Charter
  • Hobbes: Body, Man and Citizen; Elements of Law
  • Kant: Perpetual Peace


  • Hume: Of the Standard of Taste
  • Plato: Ion; Phaedrus; Symposium
  • Nietzsche: The Birth of Tragedy
  • Faulkner: The Bear
  • Melville: Billy Budd, Sailor

Philosophy and Theology

  • Luther: Christian Liberty
  • Calvin: The Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Heidegger: “What is Philosophy?”
  • Ayer: Language, Truth, and Logic
  • Locke: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Amos
  • Jonah
  • Plato: Sophist; Theaetetus
  • Aristotle: Parts of Animals
  • Pascal: Penseés
  • Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
  • Kierkegaard: Fear and Trembling

Mathematics and Science

  • Einstein: Geometry and Experience
  • Galileo: The Assayer
  • Aristotle: Posterior Analytics
  • Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams
  • Poincaré: Science and Hypothesis
  • Darwin: The Descent of Man
  • Harvey: On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
  • James: Psychology, Briefer Course


  • Emerson: “History”
  • Meinecke: “Historicism and Its Problems”
  • Plutarch: “Alcibiades;” “Coriolanus”
  • Marx: The Communist Manifesto
  • De Tocqueville: The Old Regime and the Revolution
  • Dilthey: Introduction to the Human Sciences